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Ricardo was best known as a Spanish architect.
Ricardo Bofill
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Ricardo Bofill Leví
Ricardo bofill levi.jpg
Born(1939-12-05)5 December 1939
Barcelona, Spain
Died14 January 2022(2022-01-14) (aged 82)
Barcelona, Spain
Spouse(s)Serena Vergano (divorced)
Partner(s)Marta de Vilallonga
PracticeRicardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura
Ricardo Bofill Leví (Catalan: ; 5 December 1939 - 14 February 2022) was a Spanish architect. He founded Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura in 1963 and developed it into a leading international architectural and urban design practice. According to architectural historian Andrew Ayers, his creations rank "among the most impressive buildings of the 20th century."
1 Family and early years
2 Taller de Arquitectura
3 Personal life
4 Death
5 Selected works
5.1 Urban design
5.2 Buildings
5.3 Books
5.4 Films
6 Gallery
7 Recognition
7.1 Exhibitions
7.2 Degrees and awards
7.3 Honors
8 See also
9 References
10 External links
Family and early years
Born in late 1939 just after the end of the Spanish Civil War, Ricardo Bofill grew up in a well-to-do family with deep Catalan and Barcelonese roots. His grandfather Josep Maria Bofill i Pichot  (1860-1938) had been involved in prominent local institutions such as the Institute for Catalan Studies, the Catalan Institute of Natural History , and the Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona . His father Emilio Bofill (1907-2000) was an architect, builder and developer who studied at Escola Tècnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona , Catalonia's oldest professional architecture school. Ricardo Bofill would later describe him as "republican, liberal, progressive, austere and logical." Ricardo's mother, Maria Levi (1909-1991), was an Italian of Jewish descent born in Venice, who became a prominent sponsor of Catalan literature and culture in postwar Barcelona.
Bofill studied at the Lycée français de Barcelone. He spent much of his youth traveling, first with his family and later on his own, and developed a passion for vernacular architecture. His first project was a summer home in Ibiza, completed in 1960. That year he enrolled at the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Arquitectura de Barcelona , where he engaged in student activism with the unauthorized Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia. In 1958 he was arrested in a demonstration and expelled from the university and from Spain. He moved to Switzerland and completed his formal architectural training at the Haute École d'art et de design Genève .
Taller de Arquitectura
Main article: Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura
Les quatre barres de la senyera catalana, public sculpture by Bofill that alludes to the Catalan flag; in front of W Barcelona Hotel
In 1963, Ricardo Bofill and a group of close friends created Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura (Ricardo Bofill Architecture Workshop), initially hosted in his father's construction business with offices on Plaça de Catalunya in the center Barcelona. Building on Catalan traditions of craftsmanship, he enlisted architects and engineers but also writers and artists into a multidisciplinary effort, which later branched into urban design and urban planning. The team experimented on original methodologies based on three-dimensional modular geometries, such as those of the Gaudi District  in Reus (1964-1970), El Castillo de Kafka in Sant Pere de Ribes above Sitges (1965-1968), Xanadu (1966-1971) and La Muralla Roja (1968-1973) in Calp. The same thinking was developed on a larger scale with the project La Ciudad en el Espacio ("The City in Space"), whose construction started in the Moratalaz area of Madrid in 1970 but was abruptly stopped by Francoist mayor Carlos Arias Navarro. It was instead realized with the construction of Walden 7 in Sant Just Desvern near Barcelona (1970-1975). These projects were recognized as exemplars of critical regionalism and can be viewed as a reaction against both architectural modernism and the Francoist dictatorship in Spain.
In a context of tense political situation in Spain, Bofill started exploring opportunities abroad in the 1970s. He started a second team in Paris, and gradually introduced symbolic elements into the Taller's designs that echoes French traditions of classical architecture. A seminal concept of the period was the 1971 project of La Petite Cathédrale ("the small cathedral"), actually intended as a large-scale development in Cergy-Pontoise but which remained unbuilt. Another major development was a competition-winning concept for Les Halles in Paris in 1975, whose construction subsequently started but was reversed in 1978 by the newly elected mayor Jacques Chirac. Other projects did come to fruition in the villes nouvelles  around Paris which offered a favorable environment for large-scale experimentation, including Les Espaces d'Abraxas in Marne-la-Vallée and Les Arcades du Lac in Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines. This phase culminated in the expansive Antigone new district of Montpellier in Southern France, for which Bofill presented the initial master plan in 1978. It is associated with both large-scale industrialization in precast concrete and classical forms and geometries in contemporary architecture, which Bofill has called "modern classicism". As a consequence, Bofill is often cited as one of the most representative postmodern architects in Europe.
From the mid-1980s, he increasingly shifted to glass and steel for the materials used in his projects, while still using a classical vocabulary of columns and pediments. Representative projects of that period include the 77 West Wacker Drive office tower in Chicago, the extension of Barcelona Airport ahead of the 1992 Summer Olympics, and the National Theater of Catalonia, also in Barcelona.
In 2000, Bofill re-centralized the activities of the Taller at its head office near Barcelona. His designs in more recent years have gradually shed his classical decorative vocabulary of the 1980s and 1990s, while retaining a highly formal sense of geometry. Representative buildings of this more recent period include the W Barcelona Hotel on the Barcelona seafront and the Mohammed VI Polytechnic University in Ben Guerir, Morocco.
Personal life
Bofill has two sons, both of whom as of 2021 work with him at Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura: Ricardo Emilio, born in 1965; and Pablo, born in 1980. He lives in Barcelona together with designer Marta de Vilallonga .
Bofill passed away on 14 of January, 2022, in Barcelona.
Selected works
Main article: List of works by Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura
Urban design
Large-scale master plans for Boston Central Artery (1987), Kobe waterfront (1991), Nansha District in Guangdong (1992), Barcelona Diagonal Mar (1992), Paseo de la Castellana extension in Madrid (1996/1999), Trinity Riverfront in Dallas (2013), Greater Moscow (2013)
Antigone district in Montpellier, developed from 1979 with many buildings also designed by Bofill and his Taller
Master plan for the redevelopment of the Kirchberg district in Luxembourg City (1998), including the creation of the urban square Place de l'Europe and the twin towers of La Porte designed by the Taller
Urban neighborhoods in Reus (Barrio Gaudí , 1970), Marne-la-Vallée (Les Espaces d'Abraxas, 1982), Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (Les Arcades du Lac, 1982), Cergy-Pontoise (Le Belvédère Saint-Christophe, 1985), Stockholm (På Söder Crescent, 1992), The Hague (Burgemeester De Monchyplein , 2004)
Mohammed VI Polytechnic University campus in Ben Guerir, Morocco (2011/2016)
La Fábrica, headquarters of Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura and residence for Bofill and his family (1975)
Early housing complexes in Spain based on geometrical pattern combinations: El Castillo de Kafka (1968), Xanadu (1971), La Muralla Roja (1973), Walden 7 (1975)
Les Échelles du Baroque apartment building in Paris (1985)
77 West Wacker Drive office tower in Chicago (1992)
Madrid Congress Center  (1993)
National Theater of Catalonia in Barcelona (1997)
Casablanca Twin Center in Casablanca, Morocco (1999)
Miguel Delibes Cultural Center  in Valladolid, Spain (2007)
W Hotel on the Barcelona waterfront (2009)
Terminal 2 (1992) and Terminal 1 (2009) of Josep Tarradellas Barcelona–El Prat Airport
Ricardo Bofill, Hacia una Formalización de la Ciudad en el Espacio, Barcelona: Blume Editorial, 1968
Ricardo Bofill, L’Architecture d’un Homme, Paris: Arthaud, 1978
Ricardo Bofill and Jean-Louis André, Espaces d’une vie, Paris: Odile Jacob, 1989 (Translated into Spanish as Espacio y Vida, 1990, and in Italian as Spazi di una vita, 1996)
Ricardo Bofill and Nicolas Véron, L’Architecture des villes, Paris: Odile Jacob, 1995
Circles, 1968. Color, 35 mm, 17 minutes. Directed by Ricardo Bofill and Carles Durán. Actors: Serena Vergano, Salvador Clotas. Phography: Juan Amorós. Presented at Festival de Tours, France, 1968
Schizo, 1970. Color, 35 mm, 60 minutes. Directed by Ricardo Bofill, Carles Durán and Manolo Núñez Yanosvski. Actors: Serena Vergano, Modesto Bertrán. Phography: Juan Amorós. Choreography: Antonio Miralles. Presented at 48 Mostra Cinematografica Internazionale di Venezia, Sala Volpi, 1991.
Carrer Bach 28, Barcelona (1963)
Carrer Nicaragua 97–99, Barcelona (1965)
Barri Gaudí, Reus, Catalonia (1970)
Apartaments El Castell, Sant Pere de Ribes
Walden 7, Sant Just Desvern (1974)
Walden 7, Sant Just Desvern (1974)
Sanctuary of Meritxell, Andorra (1977)
Taller de Arquitectura, Sant Just Desvern (1970s)
Place du Nombre d'Or, Montpellier (1984)
Esplanade de l'Europe, Montpellier (1980s)
Les Échelles de la Ville, Montpellier (1987)
Communauté d'Agglomération, Montpellier (1991)
Pa Soder Crescent, Stockholm (1992)
United Arrows Building, Tokyo (1992)
77 West Wacker Drive, Chicago (1992)
Teatre Nacional de Catalunya, Barcelona (1996)
Apot Building, Madrid
Olympic Swimming Pool, Montpellier (1999)
Nexus II building, UPC Campus Nord, Barcelona (2002)
Citadel Center, Chicago (2003)
W Hotel Barcelona (2009)
W Hotel
Hotel W and Quatre Barres monument
Barcelona Airport, Terminal 1 (2010)
Palacio Municipal de Congresos, Madrid
In a noted study of France's evolving social structures and landscapes published in 2021, political scientist Jérôme Fourquet and journalist Jean-Laurent Cassely wrote that "the monumental projects designed by Spanish architect Ricardo-Bofill in Noisy-le-Grand (Les Espaces d'Abraxas), in Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (Les Arcades du Lac) and in Montpellier (the Antigone neighborhood) are basically the architectural signature of the 1980s" in the country.
Bofill and his Taller de Arquitectura were featured in three exhibitions of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City: "Transformations in Modern Architecture" (1979), "Ricardo Bofill and Leon Krier: Architecture, Urbanism, and History" (1985), and "Architecture & Design Drawings: Rotation 3" (2006). They were also featured at the Venice Biennale in 1980, 1982, and 1992.
Degrees and awards
1968: Fritz Schumacher Honoris Causa Degree, University of Hamburg
1978: American Society of Interior Designers, International Prize
1979: Architecte Agréé, Ordre des Architectes (France) 
1980: Prize of Architecture of the City of Barcelona, for the renovation of the cement factory in Sant Just Desvern
1985: Honorary Fellow, American Institute of Architects
1989: Ordre des Architectes Conseils du Brabant, Belgium
1989: Chicago Architecture Award, Illinois Council / American Institute of Architects / Architectural Record
1989: Académie Internationale de Philosophie de l´Art, Bern, Switzerland
1995: Doctor Honoris Causa, Metz University
1996: Honorary Fellow of the Association of German Architects
2009: Life Time Achievement Award, Israeli Building Center
2009: Vittorio de Sica Architecture Prize, Quirinal, Rome
1984: Officier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, France
See also
Vittorio Gregotti
Léon Krier
Aldo Rossi
Moshe Safdie
New Urbanism
New Classical architecture
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