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Fidel V. Ramos
Ramos Pentagon.jpg
Ramos in April 1998, 2 months before the end of his term
12th President of the Philippines
In office
June 30, 1992 – June 30, 1998
Vice PresidentJoseph Estrada
Preceded byCorazon Aquino
Succeeded byJoseph Estrada
Secretary of National Defense
In office
January 22, 1988 – July 18, 1991
PresidentCorazon Aquino
Preceded byRafael Ileto
Succeeded byRenato de Villa
Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
In office
February 25, 1986 – January 21, 1988
PresidentCorazon Aquino
Preceded byFabian Ver
Succeeded byRenato de Villa
In office
October 24, 1984 – December 2, 1985
PresidentFerdinand Marcos
Preceded byFabian Ver
Succeeded byFabian Ver
Chief of the Philippine Constabulary
In office
1972 – February 25, 1986
PresidentFerdinand Marcos
Preceded byFabian Ver
Succeeded byRenato de Villa
Personal details
Fidel Valdez Ramos

(1928-03-18)March 18, 1928
Lingayen, Pangasinan, Philippine Islands
DiedJuly 31, 2022(2022-07-31) (aged 94)
Makati, Philippines
Political partyLakas Kampi/Lakas–CMD (2009–2022)
Other political
Lakas–NUCD (1991–2009)
LDP (1991)
(m. 1954)
Children5 (including Cristy)
Residence(s)Asingan, Pangasinan
Ayala Alabang, Muntinlupa[1]
Alma materNational University (BS)
United States Military Academy (BS)
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (M.S.)
National Defense College of the Philippines
Ateneo de Manila University (MBA)
Civil engineer
WebsiteOfficial website
Office of the PresidentArchived
Nickname(s)Eddie, FVR
Military service
Allegiance Philippines
Years of service1950–1988
RankGeneral General
See commands

Platoon Leader, 2nd Battalion Combat Team (BCT), Counter-Insurgency against the Communist Hukbalahap, 1951
Infantry Company Commander, 16th BCT, Counter-Insurgency against the Communist Hukbalahap, 1951
Platoon Leader, 20th BCT, Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea, United Nations Command (PEFTOK-UNC), Korean War, 1951–1952
Duty, Personnel Research Group, General Headquarters, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1952–1954
Senior Aide de Camp to Chief of Staff, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1958–1960
Associate Infantry Company Officer at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 1960
Founder and Commanding Officer of the elite Special Forces of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1962–1965
Chief of Staff of the Philippine Military Contingent-Philippine Civil Action Group to Vietnam (AFP-PHILCAG), Vietnam War, 1965–1968
Presidential Assistant on Military Affairs, 1968–1969
Commander, 3rd Infantry Brigade Philippine Army, 1970
Chief of the Philippine Constabulary, 1970–1986
Command and General Staff of the Philippine Army, 1985
Acting Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1984–1985
Vice Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1985–1986
Military Reformist leader during the People Power Revolution, 1986
Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1986–1988
Secretary of National Defense, 1988–1991
Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, 1992–1998

Battles/warsHukbalahap Campaign
Korean War, 1951–1952

(Battle of Hill Eerie, May 1952)

Vietnam War, 1965 to 1968
Battle of Marawi, 1972
Fidel Valdez Ramos CCLH, GCS, KGCR (Spanish: ; March 18, 1928 – July 31, 2022), popularly known as FVR and Eddie Ramos, was a Filipino general and politician who served as the 12th president of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. He was the only career military officer who reached the rank of five-star general/admiral de jure who rose from second lieutenant up to commander-in-chief of the armed forces. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.
He rose the ranks in the Philippine military early in his career and became Chief of the Philippine Constabulary and Vice Chief-of-Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines during the term of President Ferdinand Marcos.
During the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos was hailed as a hero by many Filipinos for his decision to break away from the administration of President Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly established government of President Corazon Aquino.
Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the cabinet of President Corazon Aquino, first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), and later as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991. He was credited for the creation of the Philippine Army's Special Forces and the Philippine National Police Special Action Force.
Since his retirement, he has remained active in politics, serving as adviser to his successors. He died at the age of 94 due to the complications of COVID-19.
1 Early life and education
1.1 Marriage
2 Military career
2.1 Early career
2.2 Martial Law and the EDSA Revolution
2.3 Combat record
2.4 Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces and Secretary of National Defense
3 1992 presidential election
4 Presidency (1992-1998)
4.1 Domestic policies
4.1.1 Power crisis
4.1.2 Economic reforms
4.1.3 Death penalty
4.1.4 Peace with separatists
4.2 Foreign policies
4.2.1 Spratly Islands
4.2.2 Migrant workers protection
4.2.3 Asian Financial Crisis of 1997
4.2.4 Clark Centennial Expo Scandal
4.2.5 WikiLeaks
4.2.6 Charter change
4.3 Administration and cabinet
5 Post-presidency
5.1 Activities
5.1.1 EDSA II
5.2 Advocacies
5.3 Ramos Peace and Development Foundation
5.4 Philippine Envoy to China
6 Death
7 Approval ratings
8 Honors and decorations
8.1 National Honors
8.2 Military Medals (Philippines)
8.3 Military Medals (Foreign)
8.4 Foreign Honors
8.5 Military medal
8.6 International organizations
9 References
9.1 Sources
10 External links
Early life and education
Rented family house of Narciso Ramos and Angela Valdez in Lingayen, where Fidel and Leticia Ramos-Shahani were born
Fidel Ramos was born on March 18, 1928, in Lingayen, Pangasinan and grew up in Asingan town during his childhood. His father, Narciso Ramos (1900–1986), was a lawyer, journalist and five-term legislator of the House of Representatives, who eventually rose to the position of Secretary of Foreign Affairs. As such, Narciso Ramos was the Philippine signatory to the ASEAN declaration forged in Bangkok in 1967, and was a founding member of the Liberal Party. According to Fidel Ramos's biography in his presidential inauguration in 1992, Narciso Ramos also served as one of the leaders of the anti-Japanese guerrilla group the Maharlika founded by Ferdinand Marcos. His mother, Angela Valdez (1905–1978), was an educator, woman suffragette, and member of the respected Valdez clan of Batac, Ilocos Norte, making him a second degree cousin to former Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos.
He received elementary education in a Lingayen public school. Ramos began secondary education at the University of the Philippines High School in the City of Manila, and continued in the High School Department of Mapúa Institute of Technology. He graduated high school from Centro Escolar University Integrated School in 1945. He later on obtained his degree in Civil Engineering at National University in Manila. He was Top 8 in the Civil Engineering Board Exam in 1953. Afterwards he went to the United States as he received an appointment to the United States Military Academy, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Military Engineering degree. He also earned his master's degree in civil engineering at the University of Illinois. He also holds a master's degree in National Security Administration from the National Defense College of the Philippines and a master's degree in Business Administration from Ateneo de Manila University. In addition, he received a total of 29 honorary doctorate degrees.
He married Amelita Martinez on October 21, 1954, and together they have five daughters: Angelita Ramos-Jones, Josephine Ramos-Samartino, Carolina Ramos-Sembrano, Cristina Ramos-Jalasco and Gloria Ramos.
Military career
Early career
Ramos went to the United States Military Academy at West Point where he graduated in 1950. Ramos was a member of the Philippines' 20th Battalion Combat Team of the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea (PEFTOK) that fought in the Korean War. He was an Infantry Reconnaissance Platoon Leader. Ramos was one of the heroes of the Battle of Hill Eerie, where he led his platoon to sabotage the enemy in Hill Eerie. He was also in the Vietnam War as a non-combat civil military engineer and Chief of Staff of the Philippine Civil Action Group (PHILCAG). It was during this assignment where he forged his lifelong friendship with his junior officer Maj. Jose T. Almonte, who went on to become his National Security Advisor during his administration from 1992 to 1998.
Ramos has received several military awards including the Philippine Legion of Honor (18 March 1988 and 19 July 1991), the Distinguished Conduct Star (1991), the Distinguished Service Star (20 May 1966, 20 December 1967, and 3 August 1981), Philippine Military Merit Medal (23 May 1952), the U.S. Military Academy Distinguished Graduate Award and Legion of Merit (1 August 1990), and the French Legion of Honor.
During his stint at the Philippine Army, Ramos founded the Philippine Army Special Forces. And then, he was named as the commander of the Army's 3rd Division based in Cebu City, Cebu.
Martial Law and the EDSA Revolution
Chief of Indonesian National Police Lieutenant General Awaloedin Djamin received an honorary visit by Chief of Philippine Constabulary Maj. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos, AFP (left), December 1979
Ramos was head of the Philippine Constabulary, then a major service branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, that functioned as the country's national police until 1972, when Ferdinand Marcos imposed Martial Law.
In 1975, all civic and municipal police forces in the country were integrated by decree, and it became known as the Integrated National Police (INP), which was under the control and supervision of the Philippine Constabulary. As head of the PC, Ramos was ex officio the INP's first concurrent Director-General. Martial Law was formally lifted nine years later on January 17, 1981, but Marcos retained absolute powers.
Due to his accomplishments, Ramos was one of the candidates to the position of Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in 1981, as replacement to the retiring General Romeo Espino who was the longest serving chief of staff. Ramos lost to General Fabian Ver a graduate of the University of the Philippines, who Marcos appointed to the top military post. Instead Ramos, a cousin of Marcos was named AFP Vice-Chief of staff in 1982, and promoted to the rank of three-star general. On May 12, 1983, a new unit in the former Philippine Constabulary was organized and named as the Philippine Constabulary Special Action Force as a requirement of General Order 323 of Philippine Constabulary Headquarters. Fidel Ramos and Gen. Renato de Villa were the founders of the unit. De Villa tasked Col. Rosendo Ferrer and Gen. Sonny Razon to organize a Special Action Force. After which, a training program called the SAF Ranger Course, was used to train the 1st generation of SAF troopers, which numbered 149. Of that number, 26 were commissioned officers with the rest were enlisted personnel recruited from a wide range of PC units such as the defunct PC Brigade, the Long Range Patrol Battalion (LRP), the K-9 Support Company, PC Special Organized Group, the Light Reaction Unit (LRU) of PC METROCOM, the Constabulary Off-shore Action Command (COSAC) and other PC Units. Later on, they changed the name of the course to the SAF Commando Course.
On 8 August 1983, during a speech in Camp Crame to commemorate Philippine Constabulary Day, Marcos announced his removal of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile from the chain of command, and the creation of a new arrangement with himself as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces replacing AFP Chief of Staff Gen. Ver. Marcos also removed the operational control of the Integrated National Police from the Philippine Constabulary under Gen. Ramos and transferred it under the direct control of Gen. Ver; the Constabulary then had only administrative supervision over the INP.
When Ver was implicated in the August 21, 1983 assassination of former opposition Senator Benigno Aquino Jr., Ramos became acting AFP Chief of Staff until Ver's reinstatement in 1985 after he was acquitted of charges related to the killing. Ramos at this time also formed the Special Action Force of the Philippine Constabulary to deal with so-called "terrorist-related" crimes. Ramos later admitted he completely knew of the tortures committed during martial law, of which he had participated in.
On 22 February 1986, Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile protested alleged fraud committed by Marcos in the 1986 snap elections, withdrawing support and triggering the non-violent People Power Revolution. General Ramos later also defected and followed Enrile into Camp Crame, and the duo shifted their fealty to Corazón Aquino, the widow of Senator Aquino and Marcos' main election rival. On 25 February, the "EDSA Revolution" reached its peak when Marcos, along with his family and some supporters, fled into exile in Hawaii with the assistance of the United States government, ending his 20-year rule, leaving Aquino to accede as the country's first female President.
Combat record
When belittled by the press regarding his combat record, Ramos responded with trademark sarcasm (July 31, 1987):
Korea – as a Recon platoon leader. What is the job of a recon leader? To recon the front line – no man's land. And what did we do? I had to assault a fortified position of the Chinese communists and wiped them out. And what is this Special Forces group that we commanded in the Army – '62–'65? That was the only remaining combat unit in the Philippine Army. The rest were training in a military division unit set-up. We were in Luzon. We were in Sulu. And then, during the previous regime, Marawi incident. Who was sent there? Ramos. We defended the camp, being besieged by 400 rebels.
So next time, look at the man's record, don't just write and write. You said, no combat experience, no combat experience. Look around you who comes from the platoon, who rose to battalion staff, company commander, group commander, which is like a battalion, brigade commander, here and abroad. Abroad, I never had an abroad assignment that was not combat. NO SOFT JOBS FOR RAMOS. Thirty-seven years in the Armed Forces. REMEMBER THAT. You're only writing about the fringe, but do not allow yourself to destroy the armed forces by those guys. You write about the majority of the Armed Forces who are on the job.
That's why we're here enjoying our freedom, ladies and gentlemen. You are here. If the majority of the Armed Forces did not do their job, I doubt very much if you'd all be here.
Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces and Secretary of National Defense
After Aquino assumed the Presidency, she appointed Ramos as Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (1986-1988), and later Secretary of National Defense as well as Chairman of the National Disaster Coordinating Council (1988-1991). During this time, Ramos personally handled the military operations that crushed nine coup attempts against the Aquino government. During Ramos' presidency, the National Unification Commission was created, and its chairman Haydee Yorac, together with Ramos, recommended to President Aquino to grant amnesty to the rebel military officers of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM) led by Col. Gregorio "Gringo" Honasan and Capt. Proceso Maligalig.
1992 presidential election
Main article: 1992 Philippine presidential election
In December 1991, Ramos declared his candidacy for president. However, he lost the nomination of the then-dominant party Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP) to House Speaker Ramon Mitra, Jr. Days later, he bolted from the party LDP and cried foul and founded his own party, the Partido Lakas Tao (People Power Party), inviting Cebu Governor Emilio Mario Osmeña to be his running mate as his vice presidential candidate. The party formed a coalition with the National Union of Christian Democrats (NUCD) of Senator Raul Manglapus and the United Muslim Democrats of the Philippines (UMDP) of Ambassador Sanchez Ali. Ramos and Osmeña, together with Congressman (later House Speaker) Jose de Venecia, campaigned for economic reforms and improved national security and unity.
He won the seven-way race on May 11, 1992, narrowly defeating popular Agrarian Reform Secretary Miriam Defensor Santiago. His running mate, Governor Osmeña, lost to Senator Joseph Estrada as vice president. Despite winning, he garnered only 23.58% of the vote, the lowest plurality in the country's history. The election results were marred by allegations of fraud as Santiago was leading the race for the first five days of counting but became second after a nationwide energy black-out, putting Ramos in first place. International media were already calling Santiago as the president-elect but withdrew because of the sudden change in positions. Santiago filed an electoral protest, but it was eventually junked by the Supreme Court. The quote, "Miriam won in the elections, but lost in the counting" became popular nationwide. These allegations were resurrected when WikiLeaks, in September 2011, released US Embassy reports that Libyan ruler Muammar Gaddafi contributed Php5 million to finance Ramos's campaign. Philippine election laws prohibit accepting contribution from foreigners.
Presidency (1992-1998)
Main article: Presidency of Fidel V. Ramos
Former Secretary of National Defense Fidel V. Ramos taking his oath of office as the 12th president of the Philippines on June 30, 1992.
Presidential styles of
Fidel V. Ramos
Prior Pres Seal.png
Reference styleHis Excellency
Spoken styleYour Excellency
Alternative styleMr. President
At the time of his accession in 1992, he was the first and only Protestant elected President of the majority-Catholic country and the only Filipino officer in history to have held every rank in the Philippine military from Second Lieutenant to Commander-in-Chief. He is also the fourth oldest person at the age of 64 years, 104 days to assume the presidency following Rodrigo Duterte, Sergio Osmeña and current President Bongbong Marcos.
The first three years of his administration were characterised by an economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. He advocated party platforms as outline and agenda for governance. He was the first Christian Democrat to be elected in the country, being the founder of Lakas-CMD (Christian-Muslim Democrats Party). He was one of the most influential leaders and the unofficial spokesman of liberal democracy in Asia.
Domestic policies
Power crisis
The Philippines then was experiencing widespread blackouts due to huge demand for electricity and antiquity of power plants, the abolishment of the Department of Energy and discontinuation of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant during the Aquino administration. During his State of the Nation address on July 27, 1992, he requested that the Congress enact a law that would create an Energy Department that would plan and manage the Philippines' energy demands. Congress not only created an Energy Department but gave him special emergency powers to resolve the power crisis. Using the powers given to him, Ramos issued licenses to independent power producers (IPP) to construct power plants within 24 months. Ramos issued supply contracts that guaranteed the government would buy whatever power the IPPs produced under the contract in U.S. dollars to entice investments in power plants. This became a problem during the East Asian Financial Crisis when the demand for electricity contracted and the Philippine peso lost half of its value.
Ramos personally pushed for the speedy approval of some of the most expensive power deals, and justified signing more contracts despite warnings from within the government and the World Bank that an impending oversupply of electricity could push up prices, a situation that persists in the Philippines up to the present. Individuals linked to Ramos lobbied for the approval of some of the contracts for independent power producers (IPPs), which came with numerous other deals, including lucrative legal, technical, and financial consultancies that were given to individuals and companies close to the former president. Among the deals tied to IPP projects were insurance contracts in which companies made millions of dollars in commissions alone. All the IPP contracts came with attractive incentives and guarantees. Every contract was designed to give IPP creditors some degree of comfort in financing ventures that would usually involve huge capital and risks. Most IPPs were funded by foreign loans secured with a form of government guarantee or performance undertaking, which meant that the Philippine government would pay for the loans if the IPPs defaulted. The Ramos government continued signing IPP contracts even after the power crisis had been considered solved by the end of 1993. The World Bank came up with a report in 1994 warning that power rates may rise if the government continued to enter into more IPP contracts that would mean excess power. The World Bank questioned the ambitious projections of the government on economic growth and power demand from 1994 to 1998. It also warned that the power generated by private utilities' IPPs could duplicate those of the National Power Corporation and create an overcapacity. The World Bank said that the factors create considerable uncertainty in power demand, like substantial overcapacity, particularly under take-or-pay conditions, would require considerable tariff increases that would be unpopular with the public. It was said that, presidents since Corazon Aquino catered mostly to the needs of big business for power and allowed the private sector to profit from this lucrative industry rather than craft an energy plan that would meet the needs of the Filipinos.
The country was considered risky by investors due to previous coup attempts by military adventurists led by Gregorio Honasan, and experienced blackouts at an almost daily basis lasting 4–12 hours during the term of President Aquino. The low supply of power and perceived instability had previously held back investments and modernization in the country. Under Ramos, the Philippines was a pioneer in the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) scheme where private investors are invited to build certain government projects (i.e. tollways, powerplants, railways, etc.), make money by charging users, and transfer operation to the government after a set amount of time.
Economic reforms
Economy of the Philippines underPresident Fidel Ramos1992–1998Population1992
63.82 millionGross Domestic Product (constant 1985 prices)1992 Php 718,941 million1997Php 893,151 millionGrowth rate, 1992-1998 average4.9%Per capita income (constant 1985 prices)1992 Php 11,2651997 Php 12,147Total exports1992 Php 250,610 million1997 Php 743,469 millionExchange rates1 US$ = Php 29.47 1 Php = US$ 0.034Sources: FIDEL V. RAMOS
During his administration, Ramos began implementing economic reforms intended to open up the once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption. Ramos was also known as the most-traveled Philippine President compared to his predecessors with numerous foreign trips abroad, generating about US$20 billion worth of foreign investments to the Philippines. To ensure a positive financial outlook on the Philippines, Ramos led the 4th Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Summit in the Philippines in November 1996.
Under his administration, the Philippines enjoyed economic growth and stability. The Philippine Stock Exchange in the mid-1990s was one of the best in the world and his visions of 'Philippines 2000' that led the country into a newly industrialized country in the world and the "Tiger Cub Economy in Asia".
Philippines 2000 Five-Point Program:
Peace and Stability
Economic Growth and Sustainable Development
Energy and Power Generation
Environmental Protection
Streamlined Bureaucracy
Death penalty
Main article: Capital punishment in the Philippines
While campaigning for the presidency, Fidel Ramos declared his support for reinstating the death penalty. Capital punishment was abolished for all crimes in 1987, making the Philippines the first Asian country to do so. In 1996 Ramos signed a bill that returned capital punishment with the electric chair (method used from 1923 to 1976, making Philippines the only country to do so outside U.S.) "until the gas chamber could be installed". However, no one was electrocuted or gassed, because the previously used chair was destroyed earlier and the Philippines adopted the method of lethal injection. Some people were put to death by this means, until the death penalty was abolished again in 2006.
Peace with separatists
Ramos, a military general himself, made peace with the rebel panels. He was instrumental in the signing of the final peace agreement between the government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) led by Nur Misuari in 1996.
Although he battled Communist rebels as a young lieutenant in the 1950s, Ramos signed into law the Republic Act 7636, which repealed the Anti-Subversion Law. With its repeal, membership in the once-outlawed Communist Party of the Philippines became legal.
Foreign policies
Spratly Islands
President Fidel V. Ramos troops the honor guards at the Pentagon with Secretary of Defense William Cohen during a state visit in 1998.
Migrant workers protection
A perceived weakness of his administration was the situation in handling migrant workers' protection, a very major issue in the Philippines, as there are millions of Filipinos abroad throughout the world serving as workers in foreign countries, and their remittances to relatives at home are very important to the Filipino economy. On the eve of his 67th birthday on March 17, 1995, Ramos was on a foreign trip when Flor Contemplación was hanged in Singapore. His last-minute effort to negotiate with Singapore President Ong Teng Cheong and Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong never succeeded and Ramos' return home was marred with protests after his arrival in Manila. The protests also caused the resignation of Foreign Affairs Secretary Roberto Romulo and Labor Secretary Nieves Confesor from the cabinet. He immediately recalled Philippine ambassador to Singapore Alicia Ramos and suspended diplomatic relations with Singapore. He created a special commission to look into the case, which was in part an effort to try to rescue his sagging popularity. The commission was led by retired Supreme Court Justice Emilio Gancayco.
As recommended by the Gancayco Commission, Ramos facilitated the enactment of Republic Act 8042, better known as the "Magna Carta for Overseas Workers" or more formally as the Migrant Workers Act, which was signed into law on June 7, 1995. Learning from the lessons of the Contemplación case, Ramos immediately ordered UAE Ambassador Roy Señeres to facilitate negotiations after learning of the death penalty verdict of Sarah Balabagan in September 1995. Balabagan's sentence was reduced and she was released in August 1996. After tensions cooled off, Ramos restored diplomatic relations with Singapore after meeting Goh Chok Tong on the sidelines during the 50th anniversary of the United Nations in New York City.
Asian Financial Crisis of 1997
Main article: Asian Financial Crisis
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, which started in Thailand, was a major blow to the end of the Ramos administration, with him stepping down with a negative GDP growth. The economy was hit by currency devaluation with the Philippine Peso dropped to ₱42 in 1998 from ₱26 in 1997. The same was true for the Thai baht, Malaysian ringgit and Indonesian rupiah. Growth fell to about −0.6% in 1998 from 5.2% in 1997, but recovered to 3.4% by 1999. It also resulted to the shutdown of some businesses, a decline in importation, a rising unemployment rate and an unstable financial sector.
Clark Centennial Expo Scandal
Supposedly, one of his notable contributions to the Philippines was the revival of nationalistic spirit by embarking on a massive promotion campaign for the centennial of Philippine Independence celebrated on June 12, 1998. However, charges of alleged massive corruption or misuse of funds blemished the resulting programs and various projects, one of which was the Centennial Expo and Amphitheater at the former Clark Air Base in Angeles City, supposedly Ramos's pet project. The commemorative projects, particularly those undertaken at Clark, were hounded by illegal electioneering and corruption controversies even years after the Centennial celebrations. Clark Air Base at that point was already completely free of American interference and therefore conceived as a suitable venue for Independence Day. Since in 1992, all American military bases were expelled from the country due to the continuing protests of the Anti-Bases Coalition (ABC), founded by the late Sen. Jose W. Diokno and Sen. Lorenzo M. Tañada.
Later on it was revealed through a media exposé that a special report by the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ) showed how the projects relating to the Expo site not only revealed the extravagance and inefficiency of the administration, but also served as a convenient vehicle to affect election fund-raising for the LAKAS political party of Ramos, which came at the expense of tax-paying citizens and was in direct violation of the Election Code. The Centennial Expo Pilipino project, intended to be the centerpiece for celebrating the 100th anniversary of the country's independence from Spain, also earned extensive criticisms for being an expensive white elephant project that disadvantaged the government at the cost of P9 billion, or 1.7 percent of the country's 1998 national budget. Six ranking Ramos cabinet members and officials, headed by Salvador Laurel (former vice-president), chairman of the Centennial Commission, were cleared by the Ombudsman and the Sandiganbayan (People's Court). Ramos appeared before a Congressional Committee in October 1998 to help exonerate said officials of any wrongdoing.
In 2011, WikiLeaks released a leaked 1994 diplomatic note from the US Embassy in Manila, recounting a private conversation between a diplomat and Joel de los Santos, a retired Filipino university professor who specialized in Islamic affairs. De los Santos alleged that Libyan leader Muammar al-Qaddafi had channeled $200,000 (5 million pesos) to Ramos' 1992 election campaign. Ramos dismissed the claim as "hearsay by itself, and is further based on a string of successive hearsay conversations" and challenged anyone who believed the claim to produce evidence.
Charter change
During his final years in office, Ramos tried to amend the country's 1987 constitution; a process popularly known to many Filipinos as charter change or cha-cha. Widespread protests led by Corazon Aquino and the Catholic Church stopped him from pushing through with the plan. Political analysts were divided as to whether Ramos really wanted to use charter change to extend his presidency or only to imbalance his opponents as the next presidential election neared. He also intended to extend the term limits of the presidency to remain in power but his political rival Miriam Defensor Santiago went to the Supreme Court and negated extending the term limit of the president, which preserved democracy at the time.
Administration and cabinet
Main article: Presidency of Fidel Ramos § Administration and cabinet
In January 2001, Ramos was instrumental in the success of the so-called Second EDSA Revolution that deposed Philippine president Joseph Estrada and installed then-Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo as president.
Estrada was later acquitted of perjury but found guilty of plunder and sentenced to reclusion perpetua with the accessory penalties of perpetual disqualification from public office and forfeiture of ill-gotten wealth on September 12, 2007, and pardoned by President Macapagal-Arroyo on October 26, 2007.
Ramos is currently the Chairman Emeritus of the Lakas CMD (Christian-Muslim Democrats) Party, formerly known as Lakas NUCD-UMDP or the Partido Lakas Tao-National Union of Christian Democrats-Union of Muslim Democrats of the Philippines.
At the height of the election-rigging scandal in July 2005, Ramos publicly convinced President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo not to resign from office. Ramos, who was also hounded by charges of electoral fraud during the 1992 elections which were never proven in the Supreme Court, repeatedly stated that the scandal is nowhere as grave as that of People Power Revolutions of 1986 and 2001, citing factors such as the stagnant Philippine economy in the final years of the Marcos regime as well as the allegedly massive corruption of the Estrada administration.
Ramos, then-Philippine Special Envoy to China, briefs President Rodrigo Duterte and the cabinet.
Ramos also unveiled his proposals for constitutional change of the country. Citing the need to be more economically competitive in the midst of globalization and the need to improve governance for all Filipinos, Ramos suggested that government should start the process of Charter Change with a set deadline in 2007 (by which time the new charter and new government would take effect). Ramos supports the transformation of the country's political system from the Philippine presidential-bicameral-system into a unicameral parliament in transition to a federal form.
Ramos is currently representing the Philippines in the ASEAN Eminent Persons Group, tasked to draft the Charter of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). He was also a member of numerous international groups and fora, and is currently the chairman of the Board of Directors of the Boao Forum for Asia (also one of the co-founders of BFA) and co-chairman of the Global Meeting of the Emerging Markets Forum (EMF). Ramos was heavily recommended for the position of the United Nations envoy to Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) in June 2006.
He served as the Carlyle Group Asia Advisor Board Member until the board was disbanded in February 2004. At present, as a private citizen, Ramos is engaged in various private sector advocacies where he plays prominent roles. These include: Chairman, Ramos Peace and Development Foundation; chairman, Boao Forum for Asia; Trustee, International Crisis Group (ICG); Member, Advisory Group, UN University for Peace; Honorary Director, General Douglas MacArthur Foundation; Founding Member, Policy Advisory Commission, World Intellectual Property Organization (PAC-WIPO); Honorary Member, World Commission on Water for the 21st century; Member, International Advisory Council, Asia House; Patron, Opportunity International (Philippines); Global Advisor, University of Winnipeg; Honorary Chairman, Yuchengco Center, De La Salle University; Member, Advisory Board, Metrobank; Honorary President, Human Development Network (HDN) Philippines; Lifetime Honorary President, Christian Democrats International (CDI); and Chairman Emeritus, Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats (CMD) Party.
Ramos is also a firm backer of the proposed Philippine Reproductive Health bill. During a meet-up with fellow RH bill supporters in May 2011, he urged President Benigno Aquino III to certify the RH bill as urgent, saying it is the "right thing" to do. During his administration, the Department of Health under Juan Flavier launched an intense drive to promote family planning. Asiaweek reported in August 1994 that under Ramos, "family planning funding has quintupled." They also noted that President Ramos "has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion." At present, Ramos is listed by the Forum for Family Planning and Development as one of its Eminent Persons. The Forum is a non-governmental organization working to advance "national policies on population management, health, and family welfare."
Ramos is a member of the Global Leadership Foundation, an organization which works to support democratic leadership, prevent and resolve conflict through mediation and promote good governance in the form of democratic institutions, open markets, human rights and the rule of law. It does so by making available, discreetly and in confidence, the experience of former leaders to today's national leaders. It is a not-for-profit organization composed of former heads of government, senior governmental and international organization officials who work closely with Heads of Government on governance-related issues of concern to them.
Ramos Peace and Development Foundation
Then-BOAO Forum for Asia Chairman Ramos with former Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke (right), and Syed Abul Hossain (center).
Operating as a network of individuals and institutions inside and outside the country, it will serve as a catalyst of constructive change, a medium for fostering unity, stability and progress, and a force for mutual understanding.
Philippine Envoy to China
Rodrigo Duterte revealed in June 2016 that Ramos was the one who pushed him to run for office so that 'Mindanao will finally have a Filipino president'. On 23 July 2016, Ramos was appointed by President Rodrigo Duterte as the Philippine Envoy to China to strengthen bilateral ties again after a much-heated diplomatic war over the South China Sea. On 1 November 2016, however, Ramos, stating that he miscalculated the possibilities and effects of a Duterte presidency, sent his resignation due to Duterte's drug war which has killed at least 8,000 Filipino drug suspects at the time. President Duterte accepted his resignation from the post on the same day. He was replaced by veteran journalist Jose Santiago "Chito" Sta. Romana.
Ramos died on 31 July 2022 at the Makati Medical Center, with reports that he succumbed to COVID-19. He was 94.
Approval ratings
SWS Net satisfaction ratings of Fidel V. Ramos (September 1992–April 1998)
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Honors and decorations
Ramos House marker
National Honors
: Commander of the Philippine Legion of Honor, Second Bronze Anahaw Leaf (March 18, 1988)
: Commander of the Philippine Legion of Honor, Third Bronze Anahaw Leaf (July 19, 1991)
: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Knights of Rizal.
Rizal Pro Patria Award (June 22, 1993)
Military Medals (Philippines)
: Military Merit Medal with Spearhead (May 23, 1952)
: Distinguished Service Star (May 20, 1966)
: Distinguished Service Star, First Bronze Anahaw Leaf (December 20, 1967)
: Military Commendation Medal (May 31, 1968)
: Distinguished Service Star, First Silver Anahaw Leaf (August 3, 1981)
: Outstanding Achievement Medal (July 29, 1983)
: Distinguished Conduct Star (January 14, 1991)
: AFP Long Service Medal
Korean Campaign Medal
Vietnam Service Medal
Disaster Relief & Rehabilitation Operation Ribbon
Military Medals (Foreign)
: Cheonsu Medal, Order of National Security Merit (South Korea)
: United Nations Service Medal (United Nations)
: Commander, Legion of Merit (United States)
Foreign Honors
:Honorary Member of The Most Esteemed Family Order of Brunei-Laila Utama- (March 5, 1988)
: Collar of the Grand Cross of the Order of the Merit of Chile
: Grand Cross of the Order of Legion of Honour
: Bintang Yudha Dharma-"Defence Meritorious Service Star" (June 20, 1989)
: Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm (1995)
Nishan-e-Pakistan (March 8, 1997)
Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru (1994)
: Collar of the Order of Civil Merit (September 2, 1994)
: Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (March 24, 1995)
: Collar of the Order of Charles III (January 30, 1998)
 South Korea:
: Grand Order of Mugunghwa
: Knight Grand Cordon of The Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant (January 29, 1997)
 United Kingdom:
: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (1995)
Military medal
: United Nations Korea Medal
: Vietnam Service Medal (U.S.)
: Korean Service Medal (U.S.)
: Legion of Merit (August 1, 1990)
International organizations
Bronze Wolf Award (July 28, 1993)
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